FISHLINK NEWS 2/9/96

FISH1IFR at aol.com
Fri, 9 Feb 1996 06:47:27 -0500

>>>> FISHLINK NEWS 2/9/96 <<<<
(Vol. 2, No 2)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Fisheries and Conservation News
from the Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations
and the Insititute for Fisheries Resources
<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>>>

PLEASE REPOST TO YOUR NETWORKS
=====================================================
IN THIS ISSUE:

(1) MORE LOGGING RIDER PROBLEMS FOR FISHERMEN:

(A) JUDGE HOGAN OVERRIDES SCIENTISTS TO FORCE
CUTTING OF EVEN MORE MURRELET OLD-GROWTH
FORESTS

(B) WHAT PEOPLE ARE SAYING ABOUT THE LOGGING
RIDER

(C) HOW THE RIDER DESTROYS SALMON -- THE
THUNDERBOLT SALE REVIVED IN SPITE OF
UNANIMOUS AGENCY CONDEMNATION

(D) SENATORS BRADLEY, BOXER ANNOUNCE SENATE
BILLTO REPEAL LOGGING RIDER

(2) BUDGET CUTS FORCE PREMATURE RELEASE OF MILLIONS
OF SALMON SMOTS

(3) SENATE FARM BILL A DISASTER FOR FISH PROTECTIONS

(4) SAN FRANCISCO, IRRIGATION DISTRICTS HELP RESTORE
TUOLUMNE CHINOOK RUN

(5) EPA BUDGET SLASHES ARE CRIPPLING ENVIRONMENTAL
SAFEGUARDS AND ENFORCEMENT

(6) LEAGUE OF CONSERVATION VOTERS TO ISSUE
CONGRESSIONAL SCORECARDS

(7) OREGON SENATE VOTE SWUNG ON ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES: VOTERS WANT CLEAN AIR AND WATER
___________________________________________________________
=====================================================
But first:
QUOTABLE QUOTES

"The definition of politics is this: In politics, there are no right
answers,
only a continuing flow of compromises between groups, resulting in a
changing, cloudy and ambiguous series of public decisions, where appetite
and ambition compete openly with knowledge and wisdom." -- Retiring
Senator Alan Simpson of WY in his speech resigning from the US Senate
before the Cody (WY) Chamber of Commerce.

"I can remember when a good politician had to be 75 percent ability and
25 percent actor, but I can well see the day when the reverse could be
true." ----Harry Truman

"It is the absolute right of the state to supervise the formation of
public
opinion." ----Joseph Paul Goebbels (1897-1945), in a 1923 address.

"It just goes to show that in our democratic society citizens have
the ability to effectively challenge the actions of government agencies...
provided they have three years of their life to devote to it and can raise
fifty thousand dollars." ---- Mathew Jacobson, Executive Director of
Green Mountain Forest Watch, in response to winning a logging suit
against the US Forest Service.
__________________________________________________________
====================================================
<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>>>

(1) (A) JUDGE HOGAN OVERRIDES SCIENTISTS TO FORCE
CUTTING OF EVEN MORE MURRELET OLD-GROWTH FORESTS

U.S. District Judge Michael Hogan ruled on January 10th that the salvage
logging rider attached to the Fiscal Year 1995 budget rescission bill
"resurrects" 11 timber sales that had been canceled to protect fish and
wildlife, reported Greenwire. "These sales are the worst of the worst,"
stated Patti Goldman, an attorney with SCLDF. "Other courts have issued
injunctions for these timber sales because they clearly violate environmental
laws." Under the Judge's interpretation, all sales enjoined and canceled
during the 1990s must be logged under their original, illegal forms and
long-outdated prices. The ruling gives the timber industry a green light to
clearcut ecologically essential old growth on the Boulder Krab in the
Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon. [Greenlines 1/17/96]

In another ruling about a week later, Judge Hogan also revived several
thousand acres of old growth timber sales cancelled because of their likely
impact on the threatened marbled murrelet, a seabird which nests only in
old-growth forests along the coastline. Ruling that widely accepted
existing scientific protocols for locating likely bird nesting sites are
irrelevant under the logging rider, the Judge ruled that only those areas
where nest sites are known to exist may be ruled out of bounds for logging.
This plus his other rulings puts at risk about 15% to 25% of the last
remaining (already highly fragmented) murrelet habitat in the Northwest,
and may result in them being downgraded from "threatened" to
"endangered" throughout their range in the lower 48. "Fishermen are
going to extraordinary lengths to avoid even accidental catch of these same
seabirds being wiped out on land by lawless old-growth clearcuts," noted
Glen Spain for PCFFA. "It makes no sense whatsoever to allow one
industry to wipe them out and then require fishermen to spend tens of
millions of dollars and lose whole seasons to save the remnants." The
Forest Service has no way to estimate how many square miles of old-growth
must be cut under this ruling until it re-evaluates its canceled sales.

****************

(1) (B) WHAT PEOPLE ARE SAYING ABOUT THE
LOGGING RIDER

"Arguably the worst public lands legislation ever." Jessica Mathews,
Washington Post op-ed, 11/27/95

"The salvage rider spells disaster for salmon fishermen all along the
coast." Glen Spain, Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's
Associations, 12/ll/95

"Everything is now salvage." John McCarthy, Idaho Conservation
League, "Open letter to Congress," 12/21/95

"What Congress passed and the President signed was probably the
worst environmental law of the century." Charles Gauvin,
President, Trout Unlimited

"It doesn't take a cognitive giant to see that if this logging were truly
'needed to improve forest health' there would be no need to exempt it
from environmental laws." Derrick Jensen

"If even one tree can be called salvage, call the entire sale a salvage
sale. It's a political thing." Forest Service memo defining "salvage
sales."

"If the Forest Service determines that a certain sale may proceed under
the Salvage Rider, that sale may proceed whether it has an adverse
impact on a threatened or endangered species." Judge Joseph M. Hood

"Environmental impacts are not relevant under Sec. 2001(k); the
statute mandates the release and completion of the sales
notwithstanding other laws." Mark Rutzick, counsel, Northwest
Forest Resources Council

"Most of the old trees are already gone. Leave the rest alone."
Seattle Times editorial, 12/15,95, "Why salvage logging is an
old-growth rip-off."

"It is, for the most part, the old style logging that the Forest Service
since the 1990's has condemned -- felling every tree in a given area,
logging right to the edge of streams that may be spawning grounds for
salmon and trout." Timothy Egan, The New York Times, 12/5/95

"A Bad Law Permits Old Forests' Destruction." San Francisco
Chronicle editorial, 12/12/95

****************

(1)(C) HOW THE RIDER DESTROYS SALMON -- THUNDERBOLT
SALE REVIVED IN SPITE OF UNANIMOUS AGENCY
CONDEMNATION

* The National Marine Fisheries Service concluded that
this sale is "likely to jeopardize the continued existence of Snake
River spring/summer chinook salmon."

* The EPA advised the Forest Service not to proceed with
the sale due to "potential environmental impacts [that] are of
sufficient magnitude and risk .."

* The Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that the sale
"is likely to have detrimental impacts to fish and wildlife
resources."

* The sale violates President Clinton's promise that the
Forest Service would follow the nation's environmental
laws.

* Independent analysis by retired Congressional Research
Service accountant Robert Wolf predicts the sale will lose
$2.8 million.


Location:

This sale would log 13 mmbf in two roadless areas along the South
Fork of the Salmon River and its major tributary, in the Payette and
Boise NF 30 miles east of McCall, ID.


Background:

Because of extensive past logging, and the propensity of this
geologically unstable area to massive landslides, the Forest Service
has maintained a moratorium on land-disturbing activities in this
watershed for 30 years. Now, the agency has sold the 13 mmbf
Thunderbolt sale affecting 3200 acres, over the opposition of four
government agencies including the Idaho Department of Fish and
Game, with the rationale that the receipts from the sale will be
used to fund restoration work in the watershed. The sale,
however, will not produce enough revenue to reforest the site, let
alone undertake restoration work. After no bids were received at
the public auction on the sale November 9, Boise-Cascade bought
the sale by offering the minimum in a non-public bid less than two
weeks later.

Status:

A suit challenging the sale based on the opposition of the EPA,
NFMS, the FWS, and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game was
unsuccessful in the court of Judge Edward Lodge (ruling 12/11/95)
because of the "logging without laws" rider. An appeal to the
Ninth Circuit Court may be filed.

Quotes:

"Our interpretation of the Science Panel Review, shared by
NMFS and EPA is that the Panel found the analysis seriously
flawed and that the analysis did not support the conclusion that
the Thunderbolt action would benefit the watershed." U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service

"In the unanimous opinion of these agencies, the environmental
risks posed by using salvage logging to finance restoration projects
were too great to render the Project acceptable." Judge
Edward Lodge

"The Judge agreed with the Forest Service that it can ignore
environmental laws and environmental agencies, because of the
salvage rider." Craig Gehrke, The Wilderness Society

"President Clinton told the Forest Service to follow the law even
under the salvage rider. Instead they ignore science and law
[with this sale]." Kristen Boyles, Sierra Club Legal Defense
Fund

"Despite Sen. Craig's statements to the contrary, the bottom line
on Thunderbolt is that it's going to cost the taxpayers some big
money . . . At the very least, stop selling us voters short, stop
treating us like idiots, and stop trying to convince us Thunderbolt
is a good deal for the taxpayers." Mike Stewart, publisher,
the Long Valley Advocate, Cascade ID

For more information:

John McCarthy, Idaho Conservation League (208)345-6933
Craig Gehrke, The Wilderness Society (208)343-8153
Kristen Boyles, Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund (206)343-7340

****************

(1) (D) SENATORS BRADLEY, BOXER ANNOUNCE SENATE BILL
TO REPEAL LOGGING RIDER

Offices of both Sen. Bill Bradley (D-NJ) and Barbara Boxer (D-CA)
confirmed 2/7/96 that Sen. Bradley would file and Sen. Boxer would
cosponsor legislation to repeal the "logging without laws" timber rider
suspending various environmental laws on National Forests. The bill
would be a companion to HR 2745 introduced by Rep. Elizabeth Furse,
which currently has 98 cosponsors in the House. To receive periodic
e-mail or fax updates on the "logging without laws" issue, contact the
Western Ancient Forest Campaign at WAFCDC at igc.apc.org or phone
(202)789-2844x291. [GREENLines 2/8/96]
=====================================================

(2) BUDGET CUTS FORCE PREMATURE RELEASE OF
MILLIONS OF SALMON SMOTS

By BOB BAUM (Associated Press Writer)

PORTLAND, Ore. (AP) -- Because of federal budget cuts, 8 million baby
salmon from Oregon state hatcheries were released prematurely Monday
into the icy Columbia River, where they faced almost certain death.

Millions more of the tiny fish are scheduled for early release, and some
simply may be killed and buried, because Congress cut $3.5 million for
state and federal hatchery programs in Oregon and Washington.

The loss of the tiny salmon comes as other branches of the government
spend hundreds of millions to restore depleted salmon runs in the Columbia
Basin.

``These fish are reared primarily to sustain fisheries. At a time when we're
trying to protect other runs and maintain fisheries, this is a blow to those
efforts,'' said Rich Berry, director of Oregon's hatchery program.

This year, with Congress in a budget-cutting frame of mind, lawmakers cut
from $18.5 million to $15 million the amount spent on state and federal
hatcheries under a 1948 law.

State fishery officials said the cutbacks amount to a broken promise
because the money was intended to help make up for the damage done by
dams built on the Columbia over the last half century.

Washington state fishery officials are trying to find state money to avert
the release of some 13 million young fish.

But the cutbacks are forcing Oregon to close two hatcheries. Oregon
officials watched grimly as the 8 million fish, each about 1 1/2 inches long,
were released into Tanner Creek upstream from the Columbia.

The fish normally wouldn't have been set free until May, when they would
have been twice as big.

Released salmon migrate to the Pacific, mature and return to the river in a
few years to spawn and die.

Normally, about 1.5 percent of all hatchery salmon make it back to the
river. But the fish released prematurely will fare far worse than that
because they are so young, biologists say. Other fish will devour them.

``We're farmers here at the hatchery,'' said Dan Barrett, director of the
Bonneville Hatchery. ``You've put a lot of effort in it. To see them released
prematurely, yes, it bothers you emotionally.''

Oregon plans to release an additional 13.2 million baby salmon prematurely
in about two weeks.

In addition, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is deciding whether to give
early release to 4.2 million young salmon from federal hatcheries or to
simply drain the ponds and bury the fish.

All Oregon fish being released early are tule chinook salmon, which
normally migrate into the Pacific off the coast of British Columbia. Many
are caught by Canadian fishermen.

The Columbia and Snake rivers once teemed with salmon, but runs have
dropped drastically since hydroelectric dams were built on the rivers. The
dams blocked the migration upstream and chew up fish in their turbines.

Three Snake River salmon runs have been declared threatened species.

Copyright Association Press 02-05-96 1930EST

=====================================================

(3) SENATE FARM BILL A DISASTER FOR FISH PROTECTIONS

The Senate yesterday approved a last minute addition to the Farm Bill
reauthorization that would "drastically reduce federal protections for
streams on Forest Service lands," says Trout Unlimited. TU says the
"backdoor" amendment, offered by Sen. Hank Brown (R-CO), would
allow private and municipal water users to dewater trout
and salmon streams throughout the West if enacted into law. "This end
run would severely undercut Forest Service efforts to maintain and
restore the healthy populations of fish that people throughout the West
enjoy," said Steve Moyer of TU. "Sen. Brown's legislation would
effectively dry up some critical portions of blue ribbon trout and
salmon streams on our Forests." (GREENLines 2/8/96)

=====================================================

(4) SAN FRANCISCO, IRRIGATION DISTRICTS HELP RESTORE
TUOLUMNE CHINOOK RUN

MODESTO, Calif. (1/23/96 Associated Press) -- The city of San Francisco
and two northern San Joaquin Valley irrigation districts have reached an
agreement to help restore the Tuolumne River's chinook salmon run.

The federally mediated settlement means the Modesto and Turlock
irrigation districts will be able to meet federally required water flows from
Don Pedro Reservoir for at least five years, district officials said.

San Francisco, which receives its drinking water from Hetch Hetchy
Reservoir in the Tuolumne River watershed, will pay the districts $3.5
million a year to guarantee the city's minimum flows required by the
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

The three entities also will share the cost of $500,000 worth of habitat
restoration work in historic spawning areas, the Modesto district said on
Tuesday. They also agreed to fund an additional $500,000 if other sources
provide at least 50 percent matching funds.

San Francisco also will provide $500,000 for riparian improvements and
recreation facilities plus $70,000 annually for 10 years to hire a state fish
and game biologist who will concentrate on the Tuolumne River.

The districts own the water that will be used for salmon but still will be
able to meet their domestic, irrigation and environmental obligations, said
Allen Short, MID's general manager.

``We're all coming out a winner,'' Short said Monday. ``The district has a
(federal) order we feel we can live with for 20 years until the license
process is reopened. The districts are also getting financial commitment
from San Francisco for at least five years.''

The irrigation districts are Don Pedro's licensed operators and thus are
required by the energy commission to monitor and maintain salmon
populations below the dam.

An earlier attempt to prepare a joint proposal failed. The districts and the
state Department of Fish and Game presented a proposal in 1992 to
increase water flows for fish.

San Francisco made a separate proposal and contended the one submitted
by the state and irrigation districts provided too much water for fish.

On the other hand, environmentalists and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
contended the recommendation by the districts and state was too low.

The Federal Mediation Service then helped craft an agreement which was
approved by directors of the Modesto and Turlock districts on Tuesday.
San Francisco supervisors approved the agreement on Monday.

Under the agreement's terms, Modesto and Turlock irrigation districts will
increase Tuolumne flows below Don Pedro, ranging from 94,000 acre-feet
to 300,923 acre feet, depending on how much comes in from the
watershed. An acre-foot equals 326,000 gallons and is the average amount
used by one family in one year.

An advisory committee from the districts, San Francisco, state Fish and
Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will determine the amount to
be diverted each year.

The districts will have to complete studies and programs to improve
spawning grounds and other habitat.

``We feel it's a very good agreement for us, the districts and the river,''
said Tom Berliner, a city attorney for San Francisco. ``We think the
program will result in a lot of improvement for the river.''

Johanna Thomas, executive director of the Tuolumne River Trust, called
the settlement not only a ``first step'' in helping the fish, but also a help
to
white water rafters.

``It's the dawn of a new day for the lower Tuolumne,'' she said. ``We're just
starting to restore the environmental and recreational opportunities the
river offers. The higher flows is not the answer to the salmon streams, but
it's a beginning.''

=====================================================

(5) EPA BUDGET SLASHES ARE CRIPPLING ENVIRONMENTAL
SAFEGUARDS AND ENFORCEMENT

By Elizabeth A. Palmer
CQ Staff Writer

Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol M. Browner said
Friday afternoon that budget cuts to her agency have already taken a
toll on public health and environmental protection.

Testifying before the Senate Veterans Affairs and HUD Appropriations
Subcommittee, Browner cited eight areas in which she said the
environment is at risk. They include significant reductions in environmental
inspections and enforcement actions, delays in efforts to protect drinking
water, reductions in resources for building wastewater treatment plants and
limitations on the public's right to know about toxic chemicals in their
neighborhoods.

Some funds -- at reduced levels -- have been provided in the series
of stopgap spending bills. According to Sen. Barbara A. Mikulski,
D-Md., the VA/HUD spending bill vetoed by President Clinton would cut
the EPA's budget by $1.7 billion from Clinton's request. Mikulski said
the spending bill would cut environmental enforcement by 25 percent,
drinking water safeguards by 45 percent, wastewater treatment by 30
percent and superfund cleanup by 25 percent.

Said Browner, "The bill's harmful cuts would let polluters
off the hook, slow cleanups of toxic waste sites and it would lower our
guard against drinking water contamination and raw sewage in rivers and
beaches."

Cisneros' complaint. Friday morning, the subcommittee heard Housing
and Urban Development Secretary Henry G. Cisneros give much the same
report on the effect of the budget showdown on HUD. He said HUD is
hurt by the combination of reduced funding and delays in passing
regulatory relief promised in the regular VA/HUD spending bill (HR2099)
and in several other bills (S1260, HR2406). "Housing authorities can't have
both cuts and the old straightjackets," he said.

Subcommittee Chairman Christopher S. Bond, R-Mo., agreed this
morning that the latest short-term spending bill (HR2880), which the
Senate is debating Friday afternoon, "misses many of the changes... that
are absolutely essential." But Bond said it would be difficult to
change that.

The hearing was relatively free of political rhetoric, but Bond
expressed frustration that the Clinton administration wouldn't budge on
the VA-HUD appropriations bill, which the president vetoed Dec. 18. "I
would hope by 60 days we might have something passed, but those things
are never easy,"he said.

From the CQ FaxReport

Copyright 1996, Congressional Quarterly Inc. All rights reserved.

Transmitted: 1/26/96 7:00 PM (dn12601)

=====================================================

(6) LEAGUE OF CONSERVATION VOTERS TO ISSUE
CONGRESSIONAL SCORECARDS

For the end of the first session of the 104th Congress, the League of
Conservation Voters will again publish the National Environmental
Scorecard. The Scorecard holds Members of Congress accountable for
votes cast on the environment.

LCV invites you and your organization to participate in local press events
and distribute the Scorecard to voters and activists in over 75 cities
nationwide!

Please contact Victoria Masotta at 202/785-8683 or e-mail
victoria_masotta at lcv.com to order bulk quantities and learn about local
press opportunities.

====================================================
(7) OREGON SENATE VOTE SWUNG ON ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES: VOTERS WANT CLEAN AIR AND WATER

WASHINGTON, Feb. 1 /PRNewswire/ -- Suggesting that the Senate
race in Oregon has national implications, a new nationwide poll finds that
three of every four voters believe the environment should be an important
priority for the next president -- and voters feel more intensely about the
environment than they did four years ago.

The poll, conducted for the Clean Air Trust by Lake Research, Inc., also
found that most people would vote against a candidate for public office
who wanted to relax clean air and clean water laws.

"The American public has gotten the message that our fundamental
environmental laws are in jeopardy. And they are saying they won't vote
for candidates who want to relax those laws," said former Sen. Edmund S.
Muskie of Maine, honorary co-chair of the Clean Air Trust.

The poll's findings were confirmed in the recent Oregon Senate race,
where the environmental issue appears to have made the difference in the
razor-thin victory of Democrat Ron Wyden.

The new national survey found that 71 percent of voters believe the
environment should be an important priority for the next president,
including 33 percent who believe the environment should be a top priority.
These views have intensified since 1992, when only 20 percent believed the
environment should be a top priority.

The priority extends to every segment of the electorate. Eighty-one
percent of Democrats and 76 percent of independent voters say the
environment is a very important priority. So do a solid majority (61
percent) of Republican women. Even among Republican men, the most
conservative group, 54 percent say the environment is a very important
priority.

The poll found that voters will emphatically reject candidates for public
office who support relaxing clean air or clean water laws. Two-thirds (65
percent) say they would vote against a candidate who wanted to relax clean
water laws, including 32 percent who would definitely vote against such a
candidate. A majority (53 percent) say they would not vote for a candidate
who wanted to relax clean air laws.

This sentiment crosses party lines. Sixty-two percent of independent
voters would vote against a candidate who wanted to relax air or water
protections. So would 46 percent of Republicans -- including 53 percent
of Republican women.

The Clean Air Trust is a nonprofit organization formed to protect the
federal Clean Air Act. The random sample of 1,010 voters was conducted
January 2l-23, 1996. The poll has a 3.1% margin of error.
___________________________________________________________
<<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><
******************************************************************************
****
This newsletter is intended to be a summary of information related to
the conservation and restoration of the Pacific west coast fishery. Its aim
is to become an environmental and conservation alert newsletter for the
commercial and sportfishing industry as well as allied "fish folk" in various
conservation organizations, agencies and Tribal governments active on
salmon and other fisheries protection issues.

As fishermen we are the stewards of the fisheries -- it is up to us to
take the lead in protecting our irreplaceable biological resources. If we
don't speak for the fish, who will?

This on-line newsletter is free. In addition to "FishLink News" we also
publish a regular hardcopy newsletter designed for fish-activists, called
"THE FRIDAY," which comes out by first class mail every two weeks. If
you would like to subscribe to THE FRIDAY as well, please feel free to do
so for $35/year, sent to PCFFA Northwest, PO Box 11170, Eugene, OR
97440-3370.

If you are receiving this as a complementary copy by reposting, and you
want to receive it regularly you may subscribe personally by sending your
e-mail subscription request to: fish1ifr at aol.com . It also helps to
tell us a little bit about your self and what state you live in, so that in
the
future we can divide lists by region.

If you have news items or articles for this newsletter related to west
coast salmon or other fish/environmental issues, we welcome them.
However, space and time are limited so all submissions are subject to
editing. They should be e-mailed to us (at fish1ifr at aol.com) in
ASCII(Dos) format -- the universal format for e-mail. Please include your
name and e-mail address so that readers can contact you for more
information.

<<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><
For futher information about our programs visit our Web sites:

Institute: http://www.pond.net/~fish1ifr

PCFFA: http://www.pond.net/~pcffa
<<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><

--- Your Editor (Glen Spain)
___________________________________________________________

******************************************************************************
****
END OF THIS ISSUE
___________________________________________________________
<<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<>><<><>><<
******************************************************************************
****
Copyright Notice: Some articles in this publication are protected under
US copyright law. The right to disseminate this article is also protected
undercopyright law (Section 107, 1976 Act).

The copyright law permits copying of materials for comment, criticism
and nonprofit purposes under the protection of fair use.

The copyright law also permits the copying of recent materials for the
"teachable moment." This allows copying, in full, for educational
purposes.

It is also our judgment that occasional copying of a newspaper article does
not reduce revenues to the publisher and can actually create more
demand for a newspaper by attracting readership. An excerpt provides free
advertising for the publisher.

Thus, under fair use, teachable moment, and economic criteria we
are allowed by law to selectively redistribute this copyrighted material to
others. Both PCFFA and IFR are nonprofit corporations dedicated to the
public interest, and no effort is being made in any way to profit from the
redistribution of this copyrighted material. If you redistribute them to
your own networks, please make sure their original sources are listed.